Introduction to the Advantages and Disadvantages of Lithium Power Batteries

Li-ion batteries are divided into 3C lithium batteries and power lithium batteries. 3C lithium batteries are mainly used in consumer electronics such as mobile phones, tablets, and laptops, as well as communication and computing devices. Power batteries are used in electric vehicles. Let’s briefly understand the advantages and disadvantages of lithium batteries to provide a comprehensive understanding.

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1.Wide operating temperature range

Lithium power batteries can operate between -20°C and +55°C, making them particularly suitable for low-temperature use. In contrast, aqueous solution batteries (such as lead-acid batteries and nickel-metal hydride batteries) experience significantly reduced performance at low temperatures due to decreased electrolyte flow.

2.No memory effect

Unlike nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium batteries do not require discharging before charging, allowing for charging at any time. The depth of discharge has little impact on the battery’s lifespan, allowing for full charging and discharging.

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3.Especially suitable for power batteries

In addition to their high voltage, lithium power battery packs feature protection boards that can monitor each individual cell with high precision, enabling low-power intelligent management. This includes comprehensive protection against overcharging, overdischarging, temperature extremes, overcurrent, short circuits, and automatic recovery, significantly extending battery life. In contrast, other battery types (such as lead-acid batteries) are prone to overcharging and overdischarging issues due to battery inconsistency and charger limitations.

4.Non-polluting

Lithium power batteries contain no toxic substances, earning them the label of “green batteries” and receiving significant support from the government. Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium batteries, containing harmful substances such as lead and cadmium, are subject to stricter regulation and control. Consequently, associated costs for these batteries increase. Although lithium batteries are non-polluting, considerations regarding resource conservation, safety during recycling, and recycling costs must also be taken into account.

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5.Safety hazards

Due to their high energy density and poor material stability, lithium batteries are prone to safety issues. Well-known manufacturers of mobile phone and laptop batteries (using lithium cobalt oxide and ternary materials as positive electrode materials) such as Sanyo and Sony require battery explosion rates to be controlled below 40 parts per billion (ppb). Domestic companies achieving parts per million (ppm) levels are considered good. Considering that the capacity of power batteries is hundreds of times that of mobile phone batteries, stringent safety requirements are imposed on lithium batteries. Although lithium cobalt oxide and ternary material batteries are lighter and smaller, they are not suitable for use in electric vehicles.

6.High price

The price of lithium power batteries with the same voltage and capacity is 3-4 times that of lead-acid batteries. With the expansion of the lithium power battery market, cost reduction, performance improvement, and the increasing price of lead-acid batteries, lithium power batteries may eventually surpass lead-acid batteries in terms of cost-effectiveness.

Basic Understanding of Lithium Power Batteries

Cathode material composition of power lithium-ion battery

SAE standards on lithium-ion power batteries

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